Received Apr 30; Accepted Nov 2.
Abstract Background Involuntary exposure to health-threatening environmental tobacco smoke Combined Mainstream and Side-stream Smoke, CMSS is a worldwide problem, causing premature death of thousands of people. PM constitutes a considerable health risk for passive smokers.
It is important to inform the public about brand-specific differences in CMSS-associated PM, especially in the case of brands without additives, which are therefore promoted as natural and less health-threatening. An automatic environmental tobacco smoke emitter was used to smoke cigarettes, 20 of each brand, according to a standardized smoking protocol.
Results This study could show that CMSS-associated PM released from tobacco brands without additives, which are therefore promoted as natural and less harmful, are higher than expected Conclusions It is highly improbable that Natural American Spirit tobacco products are a less harmful choice—at least not for passive smokers as this study could show.
We conclude, the CMSS-associated PM level of every single customized brand should be measured because the origin of the tobacco and not the amount of CO, tar and nicotine given as product information seem to be responsible for the brand-specific PM release.
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This data is urgently needed to adequately inform the public about CMSS-associated PM exposure and the related health risk especially for passive smokers. Keywords: Particulate matter, Indoor air pollution, Cigarettes Background Air pollution and its health hazards have been an important issue for marlboro single pack for decades.
Besides other noxious components, airborne particulate matter PM contributes to ambient air pollution. PM consists of solid and liquid droplets floating through the air and can be inhaled by our lungs. The U.
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After being inhaled PM causes severe consequences on human health in a dose—response manner, which has been demonstrated in several studies Choudhury et al.
Furthermore the toxicity of PM is size-depending.
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The smaller the diameter of the particles, the deeper they can reach into our respiratory system Li et al. Particles with a size of less than 2. PM exposure is associated with e.
Department of Health and Human Services ; Lai et al. PM levels can sometimes be higher in enclosed buildings than outdoors because PM concentrations marlboro single pack less diluted indoors Umweltbundesamt In some of these households smoking takes place in the presence of children Albar et al.
These findings also match for Germany Brenner and Mielck Taking into account that the majority of people spend their time indoors, and many are involuntarily exposed to CMSS, we find it extremely relevant to investigate PM levels that occur by smoking inside.
Moreover, we believe it is crucial to provide consumers with information not only about nicotine- tar- and CO-content of their cigarette, but about the amount of PM that is released by it, as it presents a risk factor on its own.
Natural American Spirit cigarettes, produced by Santa Fe Natural Tobacco Company, are promoted to be additive-free and thus supposed to be natural and healthy tobacco products. Consumers believe in this promising advertisement and tobacco products, such as Natural American Spirit cigarettes, are gaining popularity McDaniel and Malone Natural American Spirit orange contained 0.
High particulate matter emission from additive-free Natural American Spirit cigarettes
The green type contained 0. Reference cigarettes have been used in scientific studies for several years, e. The originated PM levels were diluted in a ratio of by the dilution system before being analyzed.
Actual values are, respectively, ten times higher. The stepper motor made it possible to evoke the automatic pushes and pulls of the syringe plunger. By kennenlernen erste stunde the syringe, inhalation was simulated.
Correspondingly, by pushing the syringe, the inhaled CMSS was exhaled into the glass chamber through the hose system. Particularly, this procedure imitated the mainstream smoke.
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Placed in a separate room, the glass chamber was equipped with rubber gloves. Marlboro single pack, turbulences and ventilations in the chamber by opening the marlboro single pack could be minimized.
Smoking protocol In order to smoke cigarettes in a standardized, reproducible and reliable way, the following four-phase smoking protocol was used: 1 the pre-igniting phase, 2 the combustion phase, 3 the post-combustion phase and 4 the suction phase Fig.